Module - Topic 3

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Read the material below and any additional resources listed for this lesson..

Topic 3:Create visual line tone using hatching, scribble hatching, cross hatching and other types of stroke techniques!

Cross Hatching

Ideal for sketching, hatching is predominantly used by pen artists and designers. It creates tonal depth and can produce realistic textures when employed with pencil.

Hatching is ideal when creating a ‘light map’ for your piece. By ‘light map’, I mean the paths in which light takes across your subject. By using different directional strokes, you leave an indication of the different light sources and their strength. Using a compact and meticulous crosshatching technique one can create breathtakingly realistic art. When the individual lines are tightly woven they can be undetectable, and the overall impression smooth, realistic and accurate.

Give shape and volume to your drawings using simple lines that fade in and out and get thicker or thinner and/or darker and lighter depending on the light source! Contour lines follow the hills, slopes, curves and edges of your shapes and are a great way to explore the scope of the space, and the dimensional capabilities of your paper. Creating a contour line sketch can greatly aid and enhance your definitive work by planning the direction of your pencil strokes. Using hatching to create shade, texture, details and shadows can give your work both an artistic look and a graphic look. Try it!

Woman with Child by Rembrandt

Woman with Child by Rembrandt

Can you identify the line strokes and lines techniques used in these drawings by Rembrandt?


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Learn to draw complex shapes from simple shapes:

Complex shapes can be drawn even if you don't use the continuous outline method of drawing. Use the simple primitive shapes you see inside any form as building blocks for complex construction. Eventually you will feel more comfortable and can return to outline drawing or observational drawing. Anyone, even a professional sometimes will use primitive shapes that are hidden inside everything you see or imagine, to discover the final complex drawing your trying to copy, or create. Try using an image in a magazine, trace over it but break it down to its simple overlapping shapes using a colored pencil first, then connect the shapes and the object will appear on your page! We often use RED or BLUE pencils to create these underlying shapes. We sometimes call these drawings "construction' drawings. By themselves , they often stand alone without erasing the red or blue lines. Animators and architects use these techniques all the time. Take a look below and try a few like these for fun!

The four simple shapes we work with are SPHERE-CUBE- CYLINDER- CONE. The images below are solid forms in 3D. When drawing as design drawing we use line techniques and hatching methods to indicate the form and details. Notice how the napkin box is built from a simple shape!

All objects are composed of basic geometric shapes that form the base of structure. These shapes, when added together form the complex objects we see today. Interesting to note is that ALL 3d CAD programs have very similar PRIMITIVE SHAPES as the starting point for very complex objects. You can draw almost anything using the shapes below or some variation of them. Look at the lamp drawing image and then look at the lamp drawing to see this concept in flat view. with a little imagination you can break down any thing you can see into these basic building blocks and begin to draw objects from 'construction' drawing' methods of overlapping the shapes and variations to create your final drawings. Use a blue or red pencil to outline the simple primitive shapes in an image that you have difficulty drawing and you will see how simple it is to use 'primitive shapes' to build complex objects. It works on household objects, industrial objects, cars, trucks, buildings, houses, etc... It even works on drawing people. So if your NEW to drawing in any shape or form, move away from OBSERVATIONAL drawing and try CONSTRUCTION drawing using the basic shapes below.

Sphere and Cube in chiaroscuro shaded drawing

Sphere and Cube

Cylinder and Cone in shaded drawing

Cylinder and Cone

Cube into Napkin box line and shaded drawing

Cube into Napkin box

Primitive Lamp Drawing in shaded light

Lamps are made of primitive shapes

Observe the six variations of shapes that make up the lamp form illustration drawing

Observe the six variations of shapes that make up the lamp form.

Cylinder shapes used in line drawing

Can you see all the CYLINDER shapes used in this drawing?

Note the construction lines used to create centerlines and proportional lines in this still life drawing.

In the real world example below, note the use of primitive shapes in the thumbnail design drawing! Great thumbnail concepts that are rendered with simple shapes, a few well placed lines and hatch marks, a little bit of color and some useful notes. Loose, fun and professional too!

This is an excellent image of what a good professional thumbnail sheet can look like! Lots of little ideas in a random order with notes. The objects are all drawn fast and loose with doodle notes and pencil and pen "thinking" to enhance the designers concepts

Line Drawing of perfume drawings in outline shapes

Image with notes about outline drawings of perfume bottles

Observe all the primitive shapes used by a packaging design firm to EXPLORE the design of a new liquor bottle in this sketch page. Can you see all the variations of spheres, cylinders, cubes and cones, thick and thin lines, and the variety of angles and fake perspective drawing?

Note how many quick thumbnails are drawn for one concept page. Five designers worked on this product design together. This is one of several pages of thumbnails of liquor bottle design concepts.

Simple limited color markers are used to enhance the conceptualization of the bottle thumbnails.

What Next?

Go to the next topic section of this lesson by clicking on the Topic 4 button below. In that section, you will add to what you've learned so far in this lesson.

Topic 4